A Variety of Additional Information



The present writer has searched for some of the most flagrant errors in the modern versions. It has been a laborious task. The collection below may not be complete, but at least it represents a large number of the worse changes in the King James Version.

The following passages are arranged from Genesis to Revelation. Since the Revised Standard purports to be the standard of the revisions, we will most frequently refer to it as an example. However, the great majority of the changed or omitted passages will generally be found in most of the other modern translations.

We will cite both Old and New Testament passage, but will particularly focus our attention on verses in the New Testament.

The purpose is to help you locate some of the most problematic passages in the new versions. The inclusions or omissions are not always quoted; but sometimes they are, especially when they are unusually blatant.

Quotations within parentheses are from the King James Bible. As usual, throughout this book, we have placed pronouns referring to the Godhead in initial caps. 


Genesis 6:3 "My Spirit shall not abide in man for ever" (RSV). ("My Spirit shall not always strive with man.")

Genesis 11:1 "Few words" instead of "one language" (RSV). ("And the whole earth was of one language, and one speech.")

Genesis 12:3 "Be blessed" changed to "bless themselves." ("And in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.") Also changed in Genesis 18:18, 22:18, 26:4, 28:14.

Genesis 49:10 "Until He come, to whom it belongs." (". . until Shiloh come, and unto Him shall the gathering of the people be.")

Numbers 33:52a "Pictures" changed to "carved idols" (NIV). / ("Ye shall destroy . . all their pictures." [It is not appropriate today to hint that television and pornography might be bad.])

Job 19:26 "Then without my flesh I shall see God." ("After my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God.")

Psalm 8:5 "Yet Thou hast made him a little lower than God" (NIV, NASV, etc.). ("For Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels.")

Psalm 45:6 "Your divine throne endures forever and ever. Your royal scepter is a scepter of equity." ("Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the scepter of Thy kingdom is a right scepter.")

Psalm 48:10 "Thy right hand is full of victory." ("Thy right hand is full of righteousness.")

Psalm 72:11 "May all" instead of "Yea, all." ("Yea, all kings shall fall down before Him.")

Psalm 72:8 "May have" instead of "shall have." ("He shall have dominion also from sea to sea.")

Proverbs 16:3 "Commit to the Lord whatever you do, and your plans will succeed" (NIV).

Isaiah 26:3 "The steadfast of mind Thou wilt keep in perfect peace" (NASV). / ("Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on Thee" [KJV]).

Isaiah 32:2 "Princes shall rule in justice, each shall be like a hiding place from the wind." ("A man shall be as an hiding place from the wind.")

Jeremiah 31:22 "A woman protects a man," instead of "a woman shall compass a man." ("The Lord hath created a new thing in the earth, a woman shall compass a man." [This is referring to the virgin birth; i.e., a woman shall produce a man-child, without copulation.])

Daniel 3:25 "A son of the gods" instead of 

"the Son of God." ("The form of the fourth is like the Son of God.")

Hosea 13:9 "I will destroy you, O Israel, who can help you?" ("O Israel, thou has destroyed thyself; but in Me is thine help.")

Micah 5:2 "Whose origin is from of old." ("Bethlehem . . out of thee shall He come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel; Whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.")

Zechariah 9:9 "Lo your King comes to you; triumphant and victorious is He." ("Behold, thy King cometh unto thee: He is just, and having salvation.") 


Matthew 1:16 Changed to "Joseph, father of Jesus" (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 1:19 "Resolved to divorce her quietly." ("Joseph . . not willing to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privily.")

Matthew 1:25 "Firstborn" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 6:13 "For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen" is omitted (the Lords prayer).

Matthew 6:3 "Of God" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 8:29 "Jesus" is omitted (RSV., etc.).

Matthew 9:13"Repentance" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 12:35"Of the heart" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 12:47 Whole verse is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 13:51 "Jesus saith unto them" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 16:3 "Oh ye hypocrites" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 16:20 "Jesus" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 17:21 Entire verse is omitted (NIV, etc.). ("Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.")

Matthew 18:11 Entire verse is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost.")

Matthew 19:9 "And whosoever marrieth her which is put away committeth adultery" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 19:17 "God" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 20:7 "And whatsoever is right that shall ye receive" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 20:16 "For many be called but few chosen" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 20:22 "And to be baptized with the batism that I am baptized with" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 23:14 Part or all of verse is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.")

Matthew 25:13 "Wherein the Son of man cometh" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 27:35 "That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet" to the end of the verse is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 28:2 "From the door" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Matthew 28:9 "As they went to tell His disciples" [about the resurrection] is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 1:1 "The Son of God" is omitted (various versions).

Mark 1:2 "It is written in Isaiah the prophet" instead of "As it is written in the prophets" (NIV, etc.). (The NIV translates it "Isaiah the prophet" because it is in the Neutral Text. But Mark 1:2b is quoted from Malachi 3:1, not from Isaiah. Mark 1:3 is quoted from Isaiah. Therefore, the KJV (and its Majority Text) has the proper reading.)

Mark 1:14 "Of the kingdom" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 2:17 "To repentance" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 6:11 "Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 9:24 "Lord" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 9:42 "Little ones that believe in Me" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 10:21 "Take up the cross" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 11:10 "In the name of the Lord" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 11:26 Entire verse is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive you your trespasses.")

Mark 12:29-30 "Of all commandments . . this is the first commandment" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 13:14 "Spoken of by Daniel the prophet" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 14:68 "And the cock crew" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Mark 15:28 Entire verse is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("And the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, He was numbered with the transgressors.")

Mark 15:39 "A son of God" instead of "the Son of God." ("The centurion . . said, truly this was the Son of God.")

Mark 16:9-20 All nine verses are omitted ([RSV, etc.], solely because they are not in the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus).

Luke 2:33 "Joseph" is changed to "His father" (RSV, etc.).

Luke 2:43 "Joseph and His mother" are changed to "His parents" (RSV, etc.).

Luke 2:49 "House" instead of "business" ("I must be about My Fathers business").

Luke 4:4 "But by every Word of God" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 4:8 "Get thee behind Me Satan" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 4:41 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 7:31 "And the Lord said" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 9:54 "Even as Elias did" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 11:29 "The prophet" (referring to Jonah) is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 17:36 Entire verse is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 22:19 "Which is given for you; this do in remembrance of Me" is omitted.

Luke 22:20 "Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the New Testament in My blood, which is shed for you" is omitted.

Luke 22:20 "Cup which is poured" instead of "blood, which is shed" (NIV, etc.). ("This cup is the new testament in My blood, which is shed for you.")

Luke 22:31 "And the Lord said" is omitted (RSV, etc.). Satan hath desired to have you.

Luke 23:17 Entire verse is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.")

Luke 23:34 "Then said Jesus, Father forgive them; for they know not what they do" is stated in the RSV footnote as something which should be omitted.

Luke 23:38 "In letters of Greek and Latin and Hebrew" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 23:42 "Lord" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 23:45 "The sun was eclipsed." ("The sun was darkened.") [A full moon, called "the Passover moon," occurred at night during Passover time. A full moon cannot eclipse the sun; only a new moon can! Desire of Ages, 685: "The passover moon, broad and full, shone from a cloudless sky."]

Luke 24:6 "He is not here, but is risen" is omitted.

Luke 24:12 Entire lengthy verse (about what Peter saw at the tomb) is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 24:40 "And when He had thus spoken, He showed them His hands and His feet" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 24:49 "Jerusalem" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Luke 24:51b-52a "Carried up into heaven. And they worshiped Him" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("And it came to pass, while He blessed them, He was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. And they worshipped Him . .")

John 1:14 "Begotten" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 1:17 "Moses gave us only the Law with its rigid demand and merciless justice" (Living Bible). ("For the law was given by Moses.")

John 1:18 "Begotten" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 1:27 "Preferred before Me" (speaking of Jesus) is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 3:13 "Which is in heaven" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 3:15 "Should not perish" (regarding believers) is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 3:16, 18 "Begotten" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 4:42 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 6:47 "On Me" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("He that believeth on Me hath everlasting life.")

John 7:53-8:11 All 12 verses are omitted (RSV, etc.). (The woman taken in adultery.)

John 8:16 "Father" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 9:35 "Son of God" is changed to "Son of man" (RSV, etc.).

John 11:41 "Where the dead was laid" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 16:16 "Because I go to the Father" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

John 17:12 "In the world" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("While I was with them in the world, I kept them in Thy name.")

John 20:29 "Thomas" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 2:30 "According to the flesh He would raised up Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 7:30 "Of the Lord" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 7:37 "Him shall ye hear" (speaking of Christ) is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 8:37 Entire lengthy verse is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("And Philip said, if thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.")

Acts 9:5-6 "It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks. And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt Thou have me to do? And the Lord said unto him" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 10:6 "He shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 15:34 Entire verse is omitted (NIV, etc.). ("Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still.")

Acts 16:31 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 17:26 "Blood" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 20:25 "Of God" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 20:32 "Brethren" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 23:9 "Let us not fight against God" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 24:6-8 "And would have judged . . to come unto thee" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 24:15 "Of the dead" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 28:16 "The centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Acts 28:29 Entire verse is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("And when he had said these words, the Jews departed, and had great reasoning among themselves.")

Romans 1:16 "Of Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ.")

Romans 3:25 "In His blood" is omitted (NIV, etc.). ("Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in His blood . .")

Romans 5:2 "By faith" is omitted (RSV, etc.). (By whom also we have access by faith . .")

Romans 6:22 "But now having been freed from sin and enslaved to God" (NASV). [This terrible error is repeated dozens of times in the modern versions! Gods people are said, not to be "servants," but "slaves" of God! Contrast this error with John 8:32, 36; Revelation 5:10; 20:4; 22:5. New Age Versions, pp. 224-225, lists 49 New Testament texts where this horrible error is perpetuated. It is true that doulos, in the Greek, can mean either "servant" or "slave." But the context obviously shows that we are never enslaved to God. We always have free will.]

Romans 9:28 "In righteousness" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Romans 11:6 "But if it be of works, then it is no more grace; otherwise work is no more work" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Romans 13:9 "Thou shalt not bear false witness" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Romans 14:6 "And he that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Romans 14:9 "Both" and "rose" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Christ both died and rose.")

Romans 14:21 "Or is offended, or is made weak" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Romans 15:29 "Of the Gospel" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Romans 16:24 "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen." is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Corinthians 1:14 "I thank God" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Corinthians 5:7 "Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Corinthians 6:20 "And in your spirit which are Gods" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("For ye are brought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit which are Gods.")

1 Corinthians 7:39 "By the law" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("The wife is bound by the law as long as her husband liveth.")

1 Corinthians 10:28 "For the earth is the Lords, and the fulness thereof" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Corinthians 11:24 "Take eat" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Take eat; this is My body . .")

1 Corinthians 11:24 "Broken for you" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("This is My body which is broken for you.")

1 Corinthians 11:29 "Lords" is omitted (RSV, etc.). (". . not discerning the Lords body.")

1 Corinthians 15:47 "The Lord" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("The second man is the Lord from heaven.")

1 Corinthians 16:22 "Jesus Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Corinthians 16:23 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

2 Corinthians 4:6 "Jesus" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

2 Corinthians 4:10 "The Lord" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Galatians 3:1 "That ye should not obey the truth" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth.")

Galatians 4:3 "We were slaves to Jewish laws and rituals" (Living Bible). ("Were in bondage under the elements of the world.")

Galatians 4:7 "Through Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.). (". . an heir of God through Christ.")

Galatians 6:15 "In Christ Jesus" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("For in Christ Jesus, neither circumcision availeth anything . .")

Ephesians 3:9 "By Jesus Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Who created all things by Jesus Christ.")

Ephesians 3:14 "Of our Lord Jesus Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("I bow my knees unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.")

Philippians 3:16 "Let us mind the same thing" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Philippians 3:20 "Wait for a Savior" instead of "look for the Saviour" (RSV, etc.).

Colossians 1:2 "And the Lord Jesus Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.")

Colossians 1:14 "Through His blood" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("In whom we have redemption through His blood.")

Colossians 3:6 "On the children of disobedience" is omitted (NIV, etc.). ("The wrath of God cometh on the children of disobedience.")

1 Thessalonians 1:1 "From God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Thessalonians 3:11 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

2 Thessalonians 1:8 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Timothy 3:2, 12 "Can marry only once" instead of "must be the husband of one wife." [According to this false teaching, the bishop can marry only once in his lifetime.]

1 Timothy 3:16 "God" is omitted, or changed to "who" (RSV, etc.). ("And without controversy, great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh.")

1 Timothy 6:5 "From such withdraw thyself" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Men of corrupt minds . . from such withdraw thyself.")

2 Timothy 1:11 "Of the Gentiles" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("I am appointed . . a teacher of the Gentiles.")

2 Timothy 4:22 "Jesus Christ," or sometimes "Christ," is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Titus 1:4 "The Lord" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Hebrews 1:3 "He reflects the glory of God, and bears the very stamp of His nature." ("Who being the brightness of His glory, and the express image of His person." ["Being" and "reflecting" are very different.])

Hebrews 1:3 "By Himself" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("When He had by Himself purged our sins.")

Hebrews 2:7 "And didst set Him over the works of Thy hands" is omitted (some modern versions).

Hebrews 2:11 "Are all of one origin" (or "father") is added (RSV, etc.). ("For both He that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one." [This change makes Jesus and the human race have the same beginning.])

Hebrews 7:21 "After the order of Melchisedec" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Hebrews 10:30 "Saith the Lord" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("I will recompense, saith the Lord.")

Hebrews 10:34 "In heaven" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Knowing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better and an enduring substance.")

Hebrews 11:11 "Was delivered" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Sarah . . was delivered of a child.")

Hebrews 12:2 "Pioneer and perfecter" instead of "author and finisher." ("Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith." [Jesus is not one of the pioneers of our faith, He is the originator of it.])

James 5:16 "Faults" is changed to "sins" (RSV, etc.). ("Confess your faults one to another, and pray for one another . .")

1 Peter 1:22 "Through the Spirit" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit.")

1 Peter 4:1 "For us" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh.")

1 Peter 4:14 "On their part He is evil spoken of, but on your part He is glorified" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Peter 5:10 "Jesus" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 Peter 5:11 "Glory" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("To Him be glory and dominion . .")

2 Peter 2:17 "Forever" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 John 1:7 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 John 2:7 "From the beginning" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("The Word which ye have heard from the beginning.")

1 John 4:3 "Christ is come in the flesh" is omitted (many modern versions). ("Every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God.")

1 John 4:9 "Begotten" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

1 John 4:19 "Him" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("We love Him, because He first loved us.")

1 John 5:7-8 "In heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Jude 25 "Wise" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("To the only wise God our Saviour.")

Revelation 1:8 "The Beginning and the Ending" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("I am the Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending.")

Revelation 1:9 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Revelation 1:11 "I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Revelation 2:13 "Thy works" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("I know thy works and where thou dwellest . .")

Revelation 5:14 "Him that liveth for ever and ever" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Revelation 6:1, 3, 5, 7 "And see" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Come and see.")

Revelation 11:17 "And art to come" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("O Lord God almighty, which art and wast, and art to come.")

Revelation 12:12 "Inhabiters of the earth" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Woe to the inhabiters of the earth . .")

Revelation 12:17 "Christ" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.")

Revelation 14:5 "Before the throne of God" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("They are without fault before the throne of God.")

Revelation 16:3, 8, 10, 12, 17 "Angel" is omitted (RSV, etc.).

Revelation 16:17 "Of heaven" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("There came a great voice out of the temple of heaven.")

Revelation 20:9 "From God" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("Fire came down from God out of heaven.") [In describing the final death of the wicked, Ellen White quotes the KJV of this verse over 10 times.]

Revelation 20:12 "God" is changed to "the throne." (RSV, etc.).

Revelation 21:24 "Them which are saved" is omitted (RSV, etc.). ("The nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light . .")

Revelation 22:14 "Wash their robes" instead of "do His commandments" (RSV, etc.). ("Blessed are they that do His commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.") 


The omission of Mark 16:9-20 from the modern versions constitutes the largest single omission of all. It deserves special attention.

The "experts" would have us believe that the ending of Mark clearly has no supporting evidence from the ancient manuscripts, translations, and early church "fathers."

"It is admittedly difficult to arrive at the conclusion that any of these readings is the original. But on the basis of the known manuscript evidence it seems more likely that either Mark ended at verse 8, or the real ending is not extant. Of these two views the former one is more compatible with the concept of a complete canon."Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, p. 373.

Let us examine the evidence. First, there are the uncials (capital letter Greek manuscripts). The omission is found only in two uncials: the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus.

The experts tell us that the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus are the purest ancient Bible manuscripts, especially since they so closely agree. But that is not true. We find that they disagree in over 3,000 places in the Gospels alone! (Herman C. Hoskier, Codex B and Its Allies, Vol. 2, p. 1).

Uncials were prepared for about ten centuries. The earliest of them are the Sinaiticus (Aleph), Vaticanus (B), Ephraemi (C), Alexandrinus (A), and Bezae (D). Scholars tell us that the ending of Mark 16 is omitted from many of these ancient codices. But we discover it is only missing from two of them: Vaticanus and Sinaiticus. In contrast none of the other uncials omit the Mark 16 ending, and there are at least 18 of them!

Then there are the cursives (lower case Greek manuscripts). All of these have the Mark 16 ending, and there are about 600 cursive copies of the book of Mark.

"With the exception of the two uncial manuscripts which have just been named, there is not one codex in existence, uncial or cursive, (and we are acquainted with, at least, eighteen other uncials, and about six hundred cursive copies of this Gospel), which leaves out the last twelve verses of St. Mark.

"The inference which an unscientific observer would draw from this fact is no doubt, in this instance, the correct one. He demands to be shown the Alexandrian (A), and the Parisian Codex (C), neither of them probably removed by much more than fifty years from the date of the Codex Sinaiticus, and both unquestionably derived from different orginals; and he ascertains that no countenance is lent by either of those venerable monuments to the proposed omission of this part of the sacred text.

"He discovers that the Codex Bezae (D), the only remaining very ancient manuscript authoritynot withstanding that it is observed on most occasions to exhibit an extraordinary sympathy with the Vatican (B)here sides with A and C against B and Aleph [Vaticanus and Sinaiticus].

"He inquires after all the other uncials and all the cursive manuscripts in existence, (some of them dating from the tenth century) and requests to have it explained to him why it is to be supposed that all these many witnesses, belonging to so many different patriarchates, provinces, ages of the church, have entered into a grand conspiracy to bear false witness on a point of this magnitude and importance? But he obtains no intelligible answer to this question."John W. Burgon, quoted in Jay P. Green, ed., Unholy Hands on the Bible, Vol. 1, pp. 40-41.

So we find that, in the ancient Greek manuscripts, 618 have the ending of Mark and two do not.

Then we come to the translations, and we find that only two of them had the omission; One was the Sinaitic Syriac, which, like the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, was prepared in Alexandria, Egypt. The other was the Codex Bobiensis, a Latin manuscript (Edward F. Hills, Believing Bible Study, p. 133).

Then there are the quotations in the early church "fathers." None of them knew anything about the missing passage in Mark, with the exception of a few apostates.

Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons is one of several Ante-Nicene fathers whose extant writings contain quotations from Mark 16:9-20. He cites Mark 16:19 in his polemical treatise, entitled Irenaeus Against Heresies, penned in approximately A.D. 177 (over a century and a half before Vaticanus and Sinaiticus).

Eusebius of Caesarea (who predicted that Constantine and Christ would reign together through eternity) knew about the omission, but did not care whether it was left in or not (Colm Luibheid, The Essential Eusebius, p. 213). (See Great Controversy, p. 574, for Ellen Whites comment on Eusebius.)

In one of his books, Burgon quotes from 30 different church "fathers" who knew that the ending of Mark was there.

Then there are the lectionaries (quotations from the Bible which were read from the pulpit). The ending of Mark is in all of them.

"But the significance of a single feature of the lectionary, of which up to this point nothing has been said, is alone sufficient to determine the controversy. We refer to the fact that in every part of Eastern Christendom these same twelve verses, neither more nor less, have been from the earliest recorded period, and still are, a proper lesson both for the Easter season and for Ascension Day." Burgon, Revision Revised, p. 40.

Burgon summarized the ancient evidence:

"Similarly, concerning THE LAST 12 VERSES OF ST. MARK which you brand with suspicion and separate off from the rest of the Gospel, in token that, in your opinion, there is "a breach of continuity" (p. 53) (whatever that may mean), between verses 8 and 9. Your ground for thus disallowing the last 12 verses of the second Gospel is that B and Aleph [Vaticanus and Sinaiticus] omit them: that a few late manuscripts exhibit a wretched alternative for them. Now, my method on the contrary is to refer all such questions to the consentient testimony of the most ancient authorities. And I invite you to note the result of such an appeal in the present instance. The verses in question I find are recognized:

"In the second century, by the Old Latin, and Syriac Versions [translations] by Papias; Justin M.; Irenaeus; Tertulian.

"In the third century, by the Coptic and Sahidic versions: by Hippolytus; by Vincentius, at the seventh Council of Carthage; by the Acta Pilati; and the Apostolical Constitutions in two places.

"In the fourth century, by Curetons Syriac and the Gothic Versions; besides the Syriac Table of Canons; Eusebius; Macanus Magnes; Aphraates; Didymus; the Syriac Acts of the Apostles; Epiphanius; Leontius; Ephraem; Ambrose; Chrysostom; Jerome; Augustine.

"In the fifth century, besides the Armenian Versions, by codices A and C; by Leo; Nestorius; Cyril of Alexandria; Victor of Antioch; Patricjus; Manjus Mercator.

"In the sixth and seventh centuries, besides cod. D, the Georgian and Ethiopic Versions; by Hesychius; Gregentius; Prosper; John of Thessalonica; and Modestus, bishop of Jerusalem."John William Burgon, The Revision Revised, pp. 422-423.

So the evidence is quite clear that Mark 16:9-20 really does belong on the end of the book of Mark.

The next question is how did it happen to become omitted? Because of John Burgon's research, we have some answers.

How could it possibly be that all the other Gospels end on a glorious note, and 24 of the New Testament books end with "Amen, yet Mark ends ingloriously with the words:

"And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid."Mark 16:8.

There is evidence that the earliest arrangement of the four Gospels was John, Matthew, Luke, and Mark.

This placing of Mark last would cause the whole to end on a note of fear and trembling. "For they were afraid." But "God hath not given us the spirit of fear" (2 Timothy 1:7), so what is the solution?

One of the most fantastic theories devised by the "experts" is that Mark suddenly died at Mark 16:8 in spite of the testimony of several early "fathers," that he outlived the completion of His Gospel (Hills, King James Version Defended, pp. 160-161).

In order to find the answer to the problem, we need only look at the actual manuscripts of the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus.

Because the data could seem complicated, we will place the key points in bold fact.

"If you had the Codex Vaticanus before you, each page (measuring 10" x 10" would be seen to contain three columns of 42 lines each. Whenever the respective scribe concluded the individual books within his codex, he would do so according to an established pattern. After penning his final lines, he would accentuate the books completion by purposely leaving the columns remaining space blank. The next book would begin at the top of the adjacent column.

"When arriving at Mark 16:9-20 however, we observe a pronounced departure from this otherwise consistent procedure. With Mark 16:8 terminating on line 31, we note that the remaining eleven blank lines are followed not by a fresh column with Luke 1, but rather by an additional 42 blank lines! This space of a whole column is striking as it constitutes the only such occurrence in the entire 759-page manuscript.

"The reason you don't find this discussed by modern Greek scholars should be obvious. As these fifty-three lines could have accommodated the missing twelve verses, our ancient authority is suddenly seen to be a dubious document at best." W.P. Grady, Final Authority, p. 49.

When something is missing in an ancient manuscript, and there is space where it used to be, that space is called a lacuna. John Burgon explains the significance of this lacuna:

"The older manuscript from which Cod. B was copied must have infallibly contained the twelve verses in dispute. The copyist was instructed to leave them out, and he obeyed; but he prudently left a blank space in memoriam rei. Never was blank more intelligible! Never was silence more eloquent!

"By this simple expedient, strange to relate, the Vatican Codex is made to recite itself even while it seems to be bearing testimony against the concluding verses of St. Marks Gospel, by withholding them: for it forbids the inference which, under ordinary circumstances, must have been drawn from that omission. It does more. By leaving room for the verses it omits, it brings into prominent notice at the end of fifteen centuries and a half a more ancient witness than itself. The venerable author of the original codex, from which Codex B was copied, is thereby besought to view.

"And thus, our supposed adversary (Codex B) proves our most useful ally; for it procures us the testimony of an hitherto unsuspected witness. The earlier scribe unmistakably comes forward at this stage of the inquiry, to explain that he at least is prepared to answer for the genuineness of these twelve concluding verses with which the later scribe, his copyist, from his omission of them, might unhappily be thought to have been unacquainted."John William Burgon, quoted in Green, Unholy Hands, p. 49.

Grady provides further explanation:

"When examining Codex Sinaiticus we discover that the shenanigans are stranger yet. Each of the slightly larger pages (leafs) of this uncial manuscript (13" x 14") contains four 2"-wide columns of 48 lines respectively.

"However, when viewing the conclusion of Marks Gospel in this codex, even the novice will find his attention arrested by two pronounced signs of textual intrusion. The first of these concerns the presence of six pages unlike the other 3,64 leaves in several particulars. This initial cause for suspicion is intensified further by the twofold discovery that one leaf contains Mark 16:2-Luke 1:56 while the handwriting style for all six pages matches that of the Vatican Codex B."

Grady's source for that is Burgon, Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels Vindicated and Established, pp. 298-299.

What the above discovery reveals is that the omission of Mark 16:9-20 in both the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, was made by the same scribe! The scribe which made the Vatican codex is the one which made the six pages in Sinaiticus which omitted the ending of Mark. One man omitted the ending of Mark from both codices.

"It is noteworthy that this opinion regarding the interpolation of Bs scribe enjoys a rare concurrence between both sides of the debate. And furthermore, before we discover the content of these spurious leaves, let it be recognized that the real significance of this partisan theory is that the number of Greek codices hostile to Mark 16:9-20 has been reduced by half!"Grady, op. cit., p. 50.

Dr. Scrivener mentions the fact that Tischendorf, who discovered the Sinaiticus and the first to examined both the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, was the first to declare that the Vaticanus scribe produced those six pages.

"I have ventured but slowly to vouch for Tischendorf's notion, that six leaves of Codex Aleph [Sinaiticus], that containing Mark 15:2 to Luke 1:56 being one of them, were written by the scribe of Codex B [Vaticanus]. On mere identity of handwriting and the peculiar shape of certain letters who shall insist? Yet there are parts of the case which I know not how to answer, and which have persuaded even Dr. Hort. Having now arrived at this conclusion our inference is simple and direct, that at least in these leaves, Codex B [Vaticanus] make but one witness, not two."Scrivener, Criticism of the New Testament, p. 337.

Grady explains further:

"Should this codex be opened before you, the page containing Marks ending would constitute the recto of leaf 29 (or the front side of page 29 laid open to your right), containing the four columns of Mark 16:2-Luke 1:18. On your left would be the verso (or the back of leaf 28) displaying the four columns of Mark 15:16-16:1.

"When these eight columns are viewed in their adjacent setting, the second tell-tale evidence of scribal tampering becomes readily apparent. As if to illustrate the adage, If at first you dont succeed, try, try again, Bs [Vaticanus] scribe made a determined effort to cover his tracks by his subsequent elimination of Mark 16:9-20 via the excision of several whole pages. This time, instead of leaving an entire column blank, he ventured on a solution that is not unfamiliar to the average student of today. With Mark 16:8 concluding on line four of column six, and Luke 1:1 situated atop column seven, our deceiver appeared to be home free."Grady, op. cit., pp. 50-51.

What the scribe did was this: When he got to the end of Mark 16:8, he left a suspiciously extra amount of blank space to the end of the book, more than were left at the end of the other books of the Bible. He was signaling that he had omitted something.

"But the writing of these six columns of St. Mark is so spread out that they contain less matter than they ought; whereas the columns of St. Luke that follow contain the normal amount. It follows, therefore, that the change introduced by the diorthota [Bs scribe] must have been an extensive excision from St. Mark: in other words, that these pages as originally written must have contained a portion of St. Mark of considerable length which has been omitted from the pages as they now stand. If these six columns of St. Mark were written as closely as the columns of St. Luke which follow, there would be room in them for the omitted twelve verses." Burgon, Traditional Text, p. 299.

Yet, in spite of all this evidence, modern Bible translators keep removing Mark 16:9-20 from their versions. The reason they do this is rather obvious. They are too lazy to check out the sources. Instead, they assume that Westcott and Hort knew what they were talking about.

From Nestle to the most recent translator, everyone blindly follows the theory of Westcott and Hort, that Mark 16:9-20 is worthless and must be kept out of modern Bibles.

The only reason some modern Bibles have put the ending back into the text is to increase sales by complaining Christians. 



Throughout this book, we have repeatedly seen that the King James Bible is the best English-language Bible in the world.

But there are two problems of which we should be aware:

When the translators of the King James came to certain passages, they assumed the verses should be translated in accordance with their preconception of the state of the dead and the punishment of the wicked. Although they were good men, not all the errors of Rome had been corrected in the minds of Gods people back then.

The following five points are quoted from the present writers book, Life Only in Christ (which is a rather complete set of Bible studies on the state of the dead, punishment of the wicked, and spiritualism):

Matthew 10:28: "Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell."

This proves the soul and the body are two different things? The body can be destroyed and the soul remain; and therefore, after the body is destroyed, the soul lives on forever?

1. This text teaches that both soul and body can be destroyed in hell. That is correct. Those who believe the immortal-soul doctrine think that the soul is immortal and will live forever. But this passage shows that idea to be false.

2. This text does not teach that the body and soul are two different entities, for this reason: Here, as in every other place in the New Testament, the word, translated "soul," in the KJV is from the Greek word, psuche. But an equal number of times, psuche was translated "life." That is what should be in this verse: "life," not "soul." To clarify this, here is Matthew 16:25-26:

"For whosoever will save his life [psuche] shall lose it: and whosoever will lose his life [psuche] for My sake shall find it. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul [psuche]? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul [psuche]?"

Psuche should have been translated "life" in both verses. When the word, "life," is substituted for "soul" in Matthew 10:28, there is no problem. The day is coming when the wicked will have their entire lives destroyed; they will be annihilated, and not live forever.

"Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with Me in paradise." Luke 23:43.

According to this, Christ told the thief he would be with Christ that same day in Paradise?

It is of interest that we are told that, as soon as He died, Christ went to preach to the spirits in prison, but also that He went immediately to paradise. But both concepts are incorrect.

1. "Paradise" is where Gods throne is (Rev. 2:7 with 22:1-2). Therefore, if Christ went to paradise that day, He went immediately to heaven where God the Father is.

But, on Sunday morning, He told Mary that He had not yet ascended to the Father (John 20:17).

In addition, the Bible says He arose from the dead on Sunday morning; and, after He arose, the women said, "Come, see the place where the Lord lay" (Matt. 28:6). It is clear that Christ was in the tomb from Friday afternoon until Sunday morning.

2. Note the punctuation of Luke 23:43. The early Bible manuscripts did not have the comma; but, instead, they read words together like this: insteadranwordstogether. Later translators used their best judgment in deciding where to place the commas, but they were certainly not inspired as were the original writers.

The commas are not over 400 years old; whereas the Inspired Writings themselves are nearly 2,000 years old. The location of the comma can change the meaning of the sentence.

In accordance with other information given about the death and resurrection of Christ, this comma ought to have been placed after "to-day" instead of before it. This would give the "to-day" a deep meaning: On the day of Christ's greatest humiliation, He could announce that the thief would be in heaven with Him! Thank the Lord!

In the Bible, we find such phrases as "everlasting punishment" (Matt. 25:46), "everlasting fire" (Matt. 25:41), and "tormented day and night for ever and ever" (Rev. 20:10). This proves an eternally burning hell and an immortal soul?

The truth is quite different. The Greek and Hebrew words, sometimes translated "everlasting" or "for ever," only mean a period of time until a certain thing is ended. Consider these points:

1. The New Testament words, translated "everlasting" and "for ever," come from the Greek noun, aion (or from the adjective, aionios, derived from the noun). Learning how these words are used elsewhere in the Bible, we find their real meaning. Here are several examples:

Matthew 13:39 "The end of the world [aion]."But how could something supposedly "endless" have an end? And, according to this verse, it did have an end.

Ephesians 1:21 Christ has been exalted above "every name that is named, not only in this world [aion], but also in that which is to come."

1 Corinthians 2:7 Whitch "God ordained before the world [aion]."

Hebrews 5:6 "Thou [Christ] art a priest for ever [aion]." Yet Christ will only be a priest until sin has been blotted out.

Philemon 15-16 "Thou [Philemon] shouldst receive him [Onesimus] for ever [aionios] . . both in the flesh, and in the Lord." Is Philemon to take back Onesimus as his servant forever?

H.C.G. Moule, the well-known Greek scholar, makes this comment about Philemon 15-16:

"The adjective tends to mark duration as long as the nature of the subject allows."The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges.

Jude 7 "Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them . . suffering the vengeance of eternal [aionios] fire." But those cities are not still burning. They are today under the south part of the Dead Sea. God turned "the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes" (2 Peter 2:6).

If the aionios fire of Sodom and Gomorrah, sent as a judgment from God to destroy the wicked living there, burned itself out in ashes and is no longer burning, we can conclude that the aionios fire of the final judgment on the wicked will do likewise.

2. Olam is the Old Testament equivalent to aion in the New Testament. Here are some examples:

Exodus 12:24 The Passover was to be kept "for ever [olam]." But it ended at Calvary (Heb. 9:24-26).

1 Chronicles 23:13 Aaron and his sons were to offer incense "for ever [olam]" and have an "everlasting [olam] priesthood" (Ex. 40:15). But that priesthood ended at the cross (Heb. 7:11-14).

Exodus 21:1-6A servant who desired to stay with his master must serve him "for ever [olam]." Must he serve him through all eternity, after both reach heaven?

Jonah 2:6 Later describing his experience in the whale, Jonah said, "The earth with her bars was about me for ever [olam]." Yet this "for ever" was only "three days and three nights" long (Jonah 1:17).

2 Kings 5:27 Because Gehazi lied in order to enrich himself, Elisha said, "The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever [olam]." Was Gehazi's family to never end, and that leprosy to be perpetuated for all time to come?

3. The Old Testament word, olam, and the New Testament word, aion, are equivalent terms. We know this to be true for two reasons: (1) The Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament, always translates olam by aion. (2) Whenever an Old Testament passage containing olam is quoted in the New Testament, aion is used (Heb. 1:8; 5:6; 6:20; 7:17, 21; 13:20; 1 Peter 1:25).

Both words clearly have a very limited time value, and do not mean an eternal time length.

Do the Bible passages, in which the word "hell" is used, show that the wicked go there as soon as they die and then remain there?

1. In the Old Testament, the word, "hell," is always translated from one word. That word is sheol. Sheol means "the grave," and never "a place of burning" or "hellfire." Sheol simply means "the unseen state." Study any analytical concordance, and you will nowhere find the idea of fire or punishment in the usage of sheol.

Jonah 2:1-2 This is a good example of how sheol is used. "Then Jonah prayed unto the Lord his God out of the fishs belly . . out of the belly of hell [sheol] cried I." There is no hellfire in a whales stomach. The marginal reading of this text is "the grave."

At death, everyone, both good and bad, goes to sheol.

Psalm 89:48 "What man is he that liveth, and shall not see death? Shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the grave [sheol]?"

Job 17:13 Regarding godly Job: "If I wait, the grave [sheol] is mine house."

Psalm 9:17 Regarding the wicked: "The wicked shall be turned into hell [sheol]."

2. In the New Testament, the word, "hell," is translated from three different words:

(1) Tartaros, which means "a dark abyss." This occurs only in 2 Peter 2:4. Satan and his angels have been cast out of heaven and down into the darkness of this world; and they are being "reserved" unto the day of judgment, a future time when they will receive their punishment.

(2) Hades, which means only "the grave," is translated as "hell" ten times in the New Testament.

The Septuagint (which is the ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament) almost always translates sheol (the Old Testament Hebrew word for grave) by the word, hades. Therefore they have the same meaning.

Psalm 16:10 This is a prophecy of Christ in the grave, and says, "Thou [God] will not leave My soul in hell [sheol]." It is quoted in the New Testament as "hell [hades]" (Acts 2:27). It is clear that sheol and hades mean "the grave." That is the meaning given to them by all Bible scholars.

Acts 2:27 This text speaks of Christ as being in hades. But we all agree that Christ did not go into hellfire! Christ went into the grave.

(3) Gehenna is the third word which, in the New Testament, is translated "hell." This time "hell" is the correct translation!

This is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word, Hinnom (the Valley of Hinnom), the name of a valley on the south side of Jerusalem used as the city dump. Garbage was there burned up.

Of the twelve times Gehenna is used, two facts stand out:

a. The "body" as well as the soul is said to be "cast into hell." Twice the phrase, "the whole body," is used (Matt. 5:29-30, 10:28).

b. In not one of those twelve instances does the text tell when the wicked will be "cast into hell." The fiery judgment is simply described as a future event. Thus it is clear that the Bible never says that anyone who goes into hellfiregoes there at death. Not once does it say that anyone is now suffering in the fire of hell.

Therefore, the fiery hell does not come right after death, but at some later time. The "whole body" is not cast into hellfire at death, but is placed in the grave.

The Gehenna passages indicate that the wicked are "cast into" the fire. The phrase, "cast into hell [Gehenna]," is used in six of the twelve times Gehenna is found in the New Testament. This is matching the parallel where refuse is cast into the fires of Gehenna Valley.

Is there no place where we are told when this hellfire occurs? Yes, there is: Revelation 20 explains that, after the millennium, the wicked are raised to life; and, after the final judgment before the great white throne, they are cast into "the lake of fire" (Rev. 20:12-15). It is at that same time that "death and hell are cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death" (Rev. 20:14).

Does that lake of fire experience occur eternally? Obviously not; for at the same time that the wicked perish in the flames, "death and hell" are destroyed also! Lastly, we are told what that lake of fire experience actually is: "the second death." It is not eternal life in misery, but the final obliteration of the wicked. There will be no endless misery to cause concern to Gods redeemed ones. The fire will burn out in a very short time, and go out.

Then, the righteous will come out of the city and the wicked will be ashes under their feet.

"For, behold the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.

"But unto you that fear My name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in His wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall. And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I shall do this, saith the Lord of hosts." Malachi 4:1-3.

Revelation 14:11 says, "The smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever." How do you explain that?

The passage says this: "The smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name."Revelation 14:11.

This passage is taken with little change from an Old Testament prophecy about Idumaea (ancient Edom):

"And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch. It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever." Isaiah 34:9-10.

Notice the points mentioned here: First, about the fire: (1) shall not be quenched; (2) night nor day; (3) smoke goes up for ever. Second, about the wasteland which shall afterward result: (1) from generation to generation it shall lie waste; (2) none shall pass through it for ever and ever.

Using the correct meaning of "for ever," which we have discovered, we find that fire predicted by Isaiah to occur in Edom, did just that. It was a thorough fire which could not be quenched while it was burning. It burned night and day as long as it burned. The smoke from the fire went up as long as it burned. When the fire stopped, it would lie waste from generation to generation thereafter, and no one would pass through it. (If the fire did not cease, it could not afterward, as predicted, "lie waste.")

Ancient Idumaea is a desolate wasteland today, and its cities are ruins. The prophecy was exactly fulfilled, yet that fire went out thousands of years ago. The smoke of that burning stopped when the fire went out.

With that in mind, we turn our attention to the equivalent prediction in Revelation 14:11; and, using the correct translation of aionios ("for ever"), we find that this verse agrees with all the others: The fire will burn only until the wicked burn up and are consumed. When the fire goes out, the smoke will cease also, otherwise the redeemed could not live on the earth amid smoke going up forever!

We must let the Bible agree with itself! The meek will inherit the earth (Matt. 5:5, Ps. 37:11), not the wicked! How could the redeemed enjoy the new earth if the wicked were endlessly burning and suffering on its surface?

To conclude this brief study, let me tell you of a man I met about thirty years ago, in Oregon. He was a lay evangelist; and I asked him how he got started. He told me he once had a friend with whom he shared our historic beliefs. But his friend simply could not grasp the great truth that God does not burn people in hellfire without end. Yet this man was certain his friend was sincere and would accept the truth if it was presented to him clearly enough.

I asked him what happened. He said he studied with his friend for two years; and, during that time, he became a thorough Bible student. Then, one evening, he presented to his friend passages he found which described how hellfire will burn on the surface of the earth. His friend was convinced; for he saw that (1) the fire could not be now burning, and (2) it would have to be brief or the saints could not inherit the earth and live thereon through all eternity.

How thankful we can be that the Bible is so consistent with itself! The apparent problems are caused by the misunderstandings of those who translated the book. The King James translators did not understand that aion did not mean forever and that the grave was not hellfire.

The Bible does not say that the judgment fire will burn endlessly; for this blazing fire on the surface of the earth must go out, so God can create "a new earth" (2 Peter 3:12-13 and Rev. 20-21). There must therefore be an end to the fire, else this earth could not be recreated, so the meek could inherit it and dwell on it through all eternity.

How wonderful it is to know that our God is a God of deepest love. Yes, it is true that the wicked must die; for they could never be happy in heaven. But how kind it is of Him to quickly end their miserable lives!

They will be raised after the millennium only long enough to learn the issues in the great controversy between good and evil and to understand how their lost condition was their own responsibility.

Then they will quickly cease to exist. There will be a few, like Hitler (and, of course, Satan and his angels!), who will suffer on for a time; but, for most, death will come very quickly.

The Bible nowhere says that souls are immortal; but, instead, it declares that "the soul that sinneth, it shall die" (Ezekiel 18:4). 


There are, in some instances, words in the King James which are not properly understood today. However, when we search for them, we find that the actual number is not very large.

It would be nice if these words could be corrected. Unfortunately, when modern publishers attempt the task (as they did with the New King James Version), they go overboard, and insert a lot of Westcott-Hort errors.

Speaking of the 1881 English Revised Version, we are told:

"The revisers had a wonderful opportunity. They might have made a few changes and removed a few archaic expressions, and made the Authorized Version the most acceptable and beautiful and wonderful book of all time to come. But they wished ruthlessly to meddle. Some of them wanted to change doctrine. Some of them did not know good English literature when they saw it . . There were enough modernists among the revisers to change the words of Scripture itself so as to throw doubt on the Scripture."Herald and Presbyter, July 16, 1924, p. 10 [Presbyterian church paper].

It would be well to identify the primary archaic words in the King James Bible. The following list probably contains most of them. The Bible references are not, of course, exhaustive. In some instances, a word translated by one of those below has a different meaning in a different passage. 

Abroad - without, outside (Deut. 24:11, Judges 12:9)

Advertise - Let you know, tell you (Num. 24:14, Ruth 4:4)

Anon - immediately (Mark 1:30)

Apparently - clearly (Num. 12:8)

Artillery - weapons (1 Sam. 20:40)

Book - indictment (Job 31:35)

Bowels - heart (Gen. 43:30)

By and by - at once (Mark 6:25)

Careful - anxious (Jer. 17:8, Luke 10:41)

Carelessly - secure (Isa. 47:8, Zeph. 2:15)

Carriage - baggage (1 Sam. 17:22, Judges 18:21)

Charity - love (1 Cor. 13)

Coast - border (Ex. 10:4, Josh. 1:4, 17:9, Matt. 2:16)

Comprehend - enclose (Isa. 40:12) / overcome (John 1:5)

Convenient - needful, required (Prov. 30:8, Eph. 5:4, Philemon 8)

Conversant - lived (Josh. 8:35) / went (1 Sam 25:15)

Conversation - behavior (1 Peter 3:1-2)

Convince - confute (Job 32:12) / convict (John 8:46)

Cunning - skillful (Gen 25:27, 1 Sam. 16:16, 1 Chron. 22:15)

Curious - skillfully woven (Ex. 28:8) / skillful (Ex. 35:32)

Curiously - intricately (Ps. 139:15)

Delectable - that they delight in (Isa. 44:9)

Denounce - declare (Deut. 30:18)

Discover - uncover (Ps. 29:9, Isa. 22:8, Micah 1:6)

Dote - become fools (Jer. 50:36)

Duke - chief (Gen. 36:15)

Feebleminded - fainthearted (1 Thess. 5:14)

Forwardness - readiness (2 Cor. 9:2)

Furniture - saddle (Gen. 31:34)

Halt - fall (Ps. 38:17) / go limping (1 Kgs. 18:21)

Harness - armor (1 Kgs. 20:11, 22:34)

Imagine - purpose, conceive (Gen. 11:6, Ps. 2:1, 10:2)

Leasing - falsehood, lies (Ps. 4:2, 5:6)

Let - hinder (Isa. 43:13) / prevented (Rom 1:13)

Libertines - Freedmen (Acts 6:9)

Meat - food (Gen. 1:29-30, Deut. 20:20, Matt. 6:25, John 4:32)

Meat offering - meal offering, cereal offering (Lev. 2:1)

Mortify - put to death (Rom. 8:13, Col. 3:5)

Munition - stronghold, fortress (Isa. 29:7, 33:16, Nahum 2:1)

Naughtiness - evil, iniquity (1 Sam. 17:28, Prov. 11:6, James 1:21)

Naughty - worthless (Prov. 6:12) / bad (Jer. 24:2)

Nephew - grandson (Judges 12:14, 1 Tim. 5:4) / descendant (Job 18:19)

Occupied - used (Ex. 38:24, Judges 16:11)

Occupier - dealer (Eze. 27:27)

Occupy - deal, trade (Eze. 27:9, Luke 19:13)

Outlandish - foreign (Neh. 13:26)

Out of hand - at once (Num. 11:15)

Overran - outran (2 Sam. 18:23)

Peculiar - ones own possession (Ex. 19:5, Deut. 14:2)

Person - be partial (Deut. 1:17, Prov. 28:21)

Pitiful - compassionate (Lam. 4:10)

Presently - at once (Prov. 12:16, Matt. 21:19, 26:53)

Prevent - receive, go before (Job 3:12, Ps. 

119:147, Matt. 17:25) / preceded (1 Thess. 4:15)

Provoke - stir up (2 Cor. 9:2, Heb. 10:24)

Publish - proclaim (Deut. 32:3, 1 Sam. 31:9)

Purchase - gain (Ps. 78:54, 1 Tim. 3:13)

Quick - alive, living (Num. 16:30, Ps. 55:15, 124:3)

Quicken - give life (Ps. 119:50) / come to life (1 Cor. 15:36) / make alive (Eph. 2:1)

Record - witness (Job 16:19, Phil. 1:8)

Reins - kidneys (Job 16:13) / hearts (Ps. 7:9)

Repent self - have compassion on (Deut. 32:36; Judges 21:6, 15)

Replenish - fill full (Gen. 1:28, 9:1)

Require - ask (Ezra 8:22)

Reward - recompense, requite (Deut. 32:41, Ps. 54:5, 2 Tim. 4:14)

Rid - deliver, rescue (Gen. 37:22, Ex. 6:6)

Riotous - gluttonous (Prov. 23:20) / gluttons (Prov. 28:7)

Road - raid (1 Sam. 27:10)

Room - place (2 Sam. 19:13, 1 Chron. 4:41, Ps. 31:8, Luke 14:7)

Secure - off its guard (Judges 8:11) / unsuspecting (Judges 18:7, 10)

Securely - trustingly (Prov. 3:29)

Slime - bitumen, tar (Gen. 14:10)

Sottish - stupid (Jer. 4:22)

Strait - small (2 Kgs. 6:1) / narrow (Isa. 49:20, Matt. 7:13)

Straitly - carefully (Gen. 43:7)

Straitness - distress (Deut. 28:53, 55, 57; Jer. 19:9)

Suffer - let (Gen. 20:6, Matt. 19:14)

Take thought - be anxious (1 Sam. 9:5, Matt. 6:25)

Tale - number (Ex. 5:8, 18; 1 Sam. 18:27)

Target - javelin (1 Sam. 17:6) / shield (1 Kgs. 10:16)

Tell - number, count (Gen. 15:5, Ps. 22:17, Ps. 48:12)

Translate - transfer (2 Sam. 3:10) / take up (Heb. 11:5)

Unspeakable - inexpressible (2 Cor. 9:15)

Usury - interest (Ex. 22:25, Lev. 25:36, Matt. 25:27)

Vain - worthless (Judges 9:4, 11:3)

Vex - wrong (Ex. 22:21) / harass (Num. 25:17) / violently grab (Acts 12:1)

Virtue - power (Mark 5:30, Luke 6:19)

Volume - roll (Ps. 40:7, Heb. 10:7)

Wealthy - spacious (Ps. 66:12) / at ease (Jer. 49:31)

Witty inventions - discretion (Prov. 8:12)

Some will say that the King James Bible is not useable, since it has a few words in it which are not as familiar to us. However, it remains an excellent translation and perfectly understandable.

"The author has lived for a considerable time in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and the Fiji Islands. In his experience, the indigenous people of these countries evidenced no problems in understanding Gods Word in the commonly used KJV. And this, in spite of the fact that, to these people, English is a foreign language!

"Are these people intellectually superior to those of us living in Australia or New Zealand?"H.H. Myers, Battle of the Bibles, p. 193.




Here is the first portion of the Lords Prayer in three English translations.

The first line is from the first Anglo-Saxon translation, prepared in King Alfreds time (A.D. 870-901).

The second line is from Wycliffes version (A.D. 1382).

The third line is from the King James Version (A.D. 1611).


Uren Fader dhic art in heofnas

Our Fadir that art in heuenes

Our Father which art in heaven


Sic gehalyed dhin noma

Halewid be thi name

Hallowed be thy name


To cymcdh dhin nc

Thi Kingdom comme to

Thy Kingdom come


Sic dhin willa sue is in heofnas and in eardhs

Be thi wille done as in heuen so in erthe

Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven


Vren hiaf ofer wirthe sd US to daeg

Gyve to us this dai oure breed ouer other 


Give us this day our daily bread


And forgef us scylda urna

And forgive to us oure dettis

And forgive us our debts


Sue we forgefan scuidgun vrum

As we forgyven to oure dettouris

As we forgive our debtors


And no inleadh vridk in costung

And leede us not in to temptacioun

And lead us not into temptation


Als gefrig vrich fro ifle

But de-yvere us fro yvel

But deliver us from evil 



Pacific Union College may have been the first of our schools to recommend that all religion students purchase and use the newly released Revised Standard Version.

The use of modern versions in our church progressed slowly; but, when the October 1982 issue of Ministry magazine was issued, it carried an article, "Use the Bible Your People Use" by Charles Case, which counseled our pastors to use the King James in the pulpit, because that is what the church members wanted them to use.

In the same article appeared the findings of a Ministry survey, which it indicated that the great majority of church members in North America wanted their pastors to only use the King James Bible.

But gradually, changes came in. Modernists came into positions of influence and the concerns of the members were ignored. Modern Bible versions were repeatedly quoted in church articles and books. The Sabbath School Lesson Quarterlies, published by the General Conference for use throughout the world field, increasingly quoted from translations based on the modern critical Greek Texts.

Modern translations began to be quoted almost exclusively in the new Bible textbooks and workbooks, used in our schools--from the lowest to the highest grades.

In 1984, the following significant statement was published in the United Bible Societies Yearly Report:

"The work of the Bible Society [United Bible Societies] acquired a new dimension with the setting up of a consultative committee made up of three representatives from the Roman Catholic, the Anglican, and Seventh-day Adventist churches. This committee will supervise the translation, reproduction, and distribution in the Sychelles."United Bible Societies Report, 1984.

A decade later, the South Pacific Division church paper, The Record, announced that it had been working, since 1990, with other denominations on a project to translate the New Testament into the Chi-Lanji language in Zambia.

"The project is interdenominational and involves Baptist, Seventh-day Adventist and Roman Catholic Churches."The Record, May 1, 1993, p. 5.

Unfortunately, in 1985 when the long-awaited Seventh-day Adventist Hymnal was published the church members found it to be full of modernist Bible versions in the Scripture Readings at the back of the book.

Out of about 224 Scripture Readings and prayers intended for corporate worship, the King James Version came in seventh in frequency. It was quoted only 14 times in the 224 readings!

Eight different Bible versions were used, and guess which translation came in second place? The Roman Catholic Jerusalem Bible! This is incredible!

The New International Version was used more than any other, 68 times in all.

Reading #782 is a quotation of John 3:16 from the Jerusalem Bible!

Reading #730 is from the New International Version:

"Glory to God in the highest and on earth peace to men on whom His favor rests."Luke 2:14 (NIV).

That translation entirely twists the meaning of the glorious song of the angelsinto a Calvinistic determinism, whereby God only selects a few to be saved. It should have read:

"Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men."Luke 2:14 (KJV).

Jesus died that all men might accept Him and be saved, not just certain ones.

"God our Saviour; who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth." 1 Timothy 2:3-4 (KJV).

Original sin is taught in Reading #756:

"Surely I have been a sinner from birth and sinful from the time my mother conceived me."Psalm 51:5 (NIV).

It is a remarkable fact that, by the time our hymnal was published in 1985, Zondervan had, in its 1984 NIV edition, already gotten the translators to modify the offensive verse somewhat:

". . and in sin did my mother conceive me."

"Sin is the transgression of the law" (1 John 3:4) is what the Bible says; a child who has only been conceived a few hours earlier and is microscopic in size is not a sinner!



Here is a brief history of the Apocrypha. It was included in all the 16th-century English versions, including the KJV of 1611. The English Revised Version of the document was published in 1894.

With the exception of 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh, these books are revered by Catholics as inspired and canonical Scripture. Rome calls them Deuterocanonical. The 4th Session of the Council of Trent on April 8, 1546, decreed that these books, "entire and with all their parts," are "sacred and canonical" and pronounced an anathema on anyone who "knowingly or deliberately" rejects them. Though denied canonicity and authority, 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh are included in Latin manuscripts of the Vulgate, and are printed as an appendix to the Bible in later editions.

The Lutheran churches, the Church of England, and the Zrich reformed churches hold that these books are useful, but not canonical.

In Luther's German translation of the Bible, these books are segregated between the Old Testament and New Testament, with the title: "Apocrypha, that is, books which are not held equal to the sacred Scriptures, and nevertheless are useful and good to read."

The Swiss Reformer, Oecolampadius, stated in 1530: "We do not despise Judith, Tobit, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, the two books of Esdras, the two books of Maccabees, the additions to Daniel; but we do not allow them divine authority with the other."

Article Six of the famous Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England (1562) states that these books are read "for example of life and instruction of manners," but the Church does not use them "to establish any doctrine."

The position of the Calvinistic and other reformed churches is clearly stated in the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647), which says this:

"The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine Inspiration, are no part of the Canon of the Scripture; therefore they are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be otherwise approved or made use of than any other human writings."

For your information, First Maccabees is the only worthwhile book in the Apocrypha. It is an actual historical account of part of the Maccabean Revolt. The rest of the Apocrypha, including 2 Maccabees, contains legendary material and cannot be trusted.

The Apocryphal books were produced between 250-150 B.C. Malachi was written around 400 B.C.

The early Christians clearly saw the foolishness in those books, and definitely rejected them from the Biblical canon of inspired books. The only reason they were later included in some post-Reformation Bibles was to appease Catholics who might want to purchase the Bibles.

As you may know, Rome requires their inclusion, intermingled all through the Old Testament, in all the Bibles they publish because those spurious books teach several Catholic errors, such as purgatory and prayers for the dead.

After ignoring the Apocrypha for centuries, Rome suddenly adopted them as inspired and canonical at the Council of Trent (1545-1563), because of the Catholic errors they supported. One of the popes pronounced a curse on anyone who should print a Bible without the Apocrapha in it.

Martin Luther had been thundering against the "indulgence scam"; but 2 Maccabees appeared to support it:

"It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead that they may be loosed from sin." 2 Maccabees 12:46.

People pay a lot of money for masses to be said for their dead relatives. All this is based on 2 Maccabees 12:46.

But those poor souls are not shown another verse in 2 Maccabees, which have the final words of the author:

"I also will here make an end of my narration. Which if I have done well and as it becometh other history it is what I desired: but if not so perfectly it must be pardoned me." 2 Maccabees 15:38-39.

In other words, the author admitted the lack of divine Inspiration for his book. Paul said something far different:

"If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the commandments of the Lord." 1 Corinthians 14:37.

The Apostle Paul was an inspired prophet of God; whereas the author of 2 Maccabees was just someone who wrote a long letter.

The author of this book has prepared a special report on the errors in the Apocrypha, which is being printed in a four-page tract. But we will also reprint it below: 



There are those among us who think it is necessary for the people of God, in these last days, to study the Apocrypha. At the request of friends, this brief overview has been prepared in order to save our people a lot of work. After reading this, your curiosity about the Apocrypha will very likely be exhausted. How thankful we can be that there is so much beautiful light and truth in the Bible and Spirit of Prophecy. In strong contrast, the Apocrypha is very, very empty.

With the exception of 1 Maccabees (a valid historical account), the Apocrypha is not worth reading.


The Old Testament Scriptures were completed when Malachi penned his book, about the year 400 B.C. From that time, down to the birth of Christ in 4 B.C., is about 400 years. During those years of Scriptural silence, there was a lot of activity in Palestine, both political and written.

From the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great (332 B.C.) to the destruction of the Temple (A.D. 70), there was considerable religious and political activity. Four events immensely affected the Jewish people: (1) the Babylonian captivity (605-538 B.C.), (2) the uprising under Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 175 B.C.), (3) the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple (A.D. 70), and (4) the Bar Cocheba revolt (A.D. 132-135).

Because of one or more of those events, many uninspired Jewish writings were produced. These writings include the Apocrypha, the Pseudopigrapha, and the writings of the Qumran community of Essenes. We will briefly look at each of these.


The term, "Apocrypha," means "something hidden" and usually refers to a group of writings that appeared in the Greek (Septuagint) translation of the Old Testament; but these were never accepted in the Hebrew canon. Both Jews and Christians always recognized that the Apocrypha was not divinely inspired.

The Apocrypha is several uninspired books which were added to the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament) about a hundred years before the birth of Christ.

Because the Apocrypha contains several Roman Catholic teachings, the papacy requires every faithful Catholic to accept the Apocrypha as fully inspired. Not to do so, according to a decree of the Council of Trent (April 18, 1546), is to be guilty of a mortal sin. Oddly enough, it was not until that date that the Vatican ever ruled that the Apocrypha was divinely inspired!

When the 16th-century Reformation began, it took time for the Protestants to successfully part with many of the errors and myths of Romanism. For this reason, some of the earliest Protestant Bibles had the Apocrypha in them, although Christians have never accepted those writings as inspired.

Interestingly enough, Jerome only included the Apocryphal books in his Latin Vulgate at the insistence of the pope. Jerome did not believe they were divinely inspired.



There are several very good reasons why Christians do not accept the Apocrypha as divinely inspired writings:

1 - The Apocryphal books are not included in the Hebrew canon of Scripture.

2 - Though they are included in the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Old 

Testament), Jesus never quoted from them.

3 - The early Christian church totally rejected them from the canon.

4 - The writer of 1 Maccabees recognized that there was no prophet among the Jews at that time (1 Maccabees 4:46; 9:27; 14:41).

5 - They teach false doctrines:

An angel says of the smoke of a burning fish heart, that it "driveth away all kinds of devils."

God is urged, "Hear now the prayer of the dead of Israel" (Baruch 3:4).

"It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sins" (2 Maccabees 12:43-45).

6 - They contain major historical and geographical errors.

7 - Josephus, contemporary of John the Revelator, mentions the Apocrypha, but never considers it inspired.

8 - Philo Judaeus, Jewish leader at Alexandria during the time of the apostles, left a large collection of writings and quoted extensively from the Old Testamentbut never from the Apocrypha.

9 - They lack the high spiritual tone and general excellence of the Biblical writings.



These are the books that Roman Catholics are required to accept as inspired of God, on pain of mortal sin if they do not do so:


1 Maccabees This is the only worthwhile book in the Apocrypha. It is fairly reliable history and covers the Maccabean revolt against Antiochus Epiphanes, from 175 to 135 B.C.

This is an important historical book, and tells about the struggles of the Jews for religious and political liberty in the 2nd century B.C. The name is derived from Judas Maccabeus, the third son of Mattathias, a priest. (The word, "Maccabeus," comes from the Hebrew word for "hammer.")

Written in Hebrew by a Palestinian Jew about 100 B.C., it is our best source for the history of the first 40 years of the Maccabean wars and gives a reasonably dependable account of the period from Antiochus Epiphanes (175 B.C.) to John Hyrcanus (c. 135 B.C.). We are first told of events leading up to the Maccabean rebellion (1:1 to chapter 2); then about the military exploits of Judas (3:1-9:22) and his brothers, Jonathan (9:23-12:53) and Simon (13:1-16:24), who succeeded him in the ongoing struggle first for religious and political freedom. The emphasis of the book is on military activity; and little is told about the social, economic, and religious aspects of the period.

2 Maccabees This book is a mixture of history and legendary narratives, covering the period 175-160 B.C. An independent, divergent, and more elaborate account of events in 1 Maccabees 1-7, it was written by moralizing Jews about the 1st century B.C. and includes a variety of supernatural miracles which helped the warring Jews.


Wisdom of Solomon This book, written in Greek about 50 B.C. (probably at Alexandria), says that good living is best; and sin and idolatry are wrong. The author claims to be King Solomon.

Scholars who study ancient manuscripts declare that this book combines Old Testament teachings with Alexandrian ideas derived from Platonism and Stoicism.

Ecclesiasticus (also called Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach)The theme is also about good living. In some passages, the book sounds like Proverbs and Ecclesiastes.

The most famous passage in Ecclesiasticus is a series of stories (chapters 44-50) beginning with the familiar words, "Let us now praise famous men." Yet that is a concept foreign to true Scripture!

There are errors in both the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus.


Tobit a legendary romantic narrative, said to have occurred during the Babylonian captivity and written about 200 B.C.

According to this novel, Tobit was a Jew living in Babylon who became blind (chapter 1:2); and, then, after a quarrel with his wife, he wished he might die. At the same time, a widow named Sarah, living in Ecbatana in Media, had seven husbands slain on her wedding night by a demon named Asmodeus. So she also prayed that she might die. The angel, Raphael, was then sent to help them both. Raphael comes to Azaria and lies to him, saying he is a man named Azarias. Leading him to the Tigris River, Raphael has him catch a large fish, the intestines of which later help banish the demon, Asmodeus, and cure Tobits blindness. Arriving in Ecbatana, the angel helps Tobit find a lot of money; and he marries the woman who, according to the angel, was destined for him from all eternity (7:9). Yet Tobit was already married to another woman! Tobit then praises God (10-14).

Judith The story of the bravery of Judith, a Hebrew widow, written about 150 B.C.

In this totally fictitious story, after the Jews returned from the Babylonian captivity, Nebuchadnezzar, the Assyrian king ruling from Nineveh, decided to punish the Jews for not assisting him in his conquest of Media. (As you know, Nebuchadnezzar was a Babylonian king, ruling from Babylon, and he was not alive after the Babylonian captivity.)

Holofernes, his Assyrian general, is said to have besieged the city of Bethulia; but, through trickery, Judith cuts off his head with his own sword while he is in a drunken stupor.

Additions to Esther Fictitious stories, written about 150 B.C., are inserted in various places in the book of Esther; and part of a chapter and six other chapters are added at the end of Esther. A total of 107 verses are added.

Additions to Daniel There are three of these. Here they are:

The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Holy Children The prayer of Abednego, plus the song of the three Hebrews, because their prayer in the fiery furnace was heard. This is the first of the additions to Daniel and is inserted between Daniel 23 and 24 in the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and most Catholic Bibles.

As the three stand inside the fiery hot furnace, Azariah prays for help so they will not die (1-22). Then, when it comes (23-28), the three praise God for deliverance (29-68). Ignored is the fact that they had to be helped as soon as they were pushed into the fiery furnace!

Susanna and the Elders A story about how Daniel saved Susanna from being condemned to death as a result of false accusations.

In the Vulgate, this religious romance follows the last chapter of Daniel and is numbered as chapter 13. It apparently was written in Hebrew in the 1st century B.C.

Two Jewish judges tried to seduce Susanna, the godly wife of Joakim, a prominent Babylonian Jew. When she refused, they accused her of adultery. Daniel rescued her by independently cross-examining each of the elders, proving their stories contradictory and fallacious.

Bel and the Dragon This consists of two fabulous stories, written probably in Hebrew during the 1st century B.C. and included as chapter 14 of Daniel: (1) Daniel proves that Bel's priests and their families ate food offered to an idol. (2) After Daniel kills a dragon, he is then put in the lions den.

In the first story, the Babylonian priests of Bel (Marduk) have claimed that their heathen idol was eating the food presented to it. Daniel disproves this claim by sprinkling ashes on the floor, demonstrating that the 70 priests and their families would sneak in by a secret door and take the food.

In the second story, a great dragon was being worshiped by the people. Daniel kills it by feeding it a concoction of pitch, fat, and hair, boiled together. The creature bursts and dies. Because he did this, Daniel is cast (a second time) into a lions den for not one, but six days. While there, he is miraculously fed by Habakkuk, the prophet, who is flown by an angel from Judea to Babylon for this purpose.


Baruch This book purportedly was written by Jeremiahs scribe, Baruch, during the Babylonian exile. It is thought to have been written, in the first century A.D., by a Jew in order to warn his people that the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) happened because of the sins of the Jewish nation. The final chapter promises the restoration of Israel and predicts the humbling of all her oppressors.

Letter of Jeremiah (also known as the Epistle of Jeremy)This book is included at the end of Baruch in ancient manuscripts. But it is a separate production, which non-Catholic scholars believe to have been written after the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, to encourage them to remain true to Judaism.

In this manuscript, based on Jeremiah 10:11, the writer warns his people not to forsake Judaism, lest they experience another captivity.


By order of the Council of Trent, the above books are all included in Roman Catholic Bibles. There are also five other books which are called the Pseudopigrapha.

Roman Catholics are not required to accept any of the following books, and they have never been considered canonical by any denomination.

3 Maccabees This book of seven chapters is clearly folklore; it tells the story of the victory of Ptolemy IV Philopator, over Antiochus the Great at the Battle of Raphia (217 B.C.) in order to deliver the Jewish people.

4 Maccabees This brief book urges the Jews to practice temperance and self-control by studying the Torah.

Prayer of Manasseh You will recall that King Manasseh was carried to Babylon; and, while there, he repented and was restored to his throne (2 Kings 21:1-18; 2 Chronicles 33:1-20).

This Pseudopigraphal document, written in Hebrew about 100-150 B.C., purports to be Manasseh's prayer while in captivity. It is not considered canonical even by Catholics.

1 Esdras Written by an Egyptian Jew about 150 B.C., this book is often described as historical fiction. Neither Catholics nor Protestants accept it as canonical. 1 Esdras purports to tell more about portions of 2 Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah.

It is best known for its account (1 Esdras 3:5-4:63) of three young bodyguards of Darius I who, one day, sought the best answer to the question, What is the strongest thing in the world? The first said, "Wine is strongest." The second said. "The king is strongest." The third said, "Women are strongest, but truth is victor over all things." At this, the people applauded him and cried, "Great is truth, and strongest of all." Does that sound like anything worth reading? This event is supposed to have given Zerubbabel the opportunity to obtain from Darius the command to resume building on the Temple in Jerusalem (4:48-57).

A point of confusion needs to be mentioned here. In Catholic Bibles, the books of Ezra and Nehemiah are called 1 and 2 Esdras. But, of course, the Pseudopigraphal books, 1 and 2 Esdras, are quite different!

In the Latin Vulgate, 3 and 4 Esdras are included as an appendix to the New Testament, as is the Prayer of Manasseh.

2 Esdras This book apparently was written by Christians between A.D. 150 and 250. It speaks of the rejection of the Jews and the calling of the Gentiles (chapters 1-2), in chapter 1 and verse 30, and is similar to Matthew 23:37; chapter 1 and verse 37 is similar to John 20:29).

Chapters 3-14 are supposed to have been written by someone named Salathiel, who is identified with Ezra. It is thought that the book was written by a Christian and named "Ezdras" in order to get the Jews to read it. At its end (14:48), Ezra is supposed to have been translated to heaven, without experiencing death.

Jubilees Written in Hebrew apparently by a Pharisee or Essene about 125 B.C., Jubilees teaches that the coming Messianic kingdom will gradually develop until both man and nature will reach perfection, happiness, and peace. At that time, everyone will live a thousand years; and, at death, all will then go to heaven. A fragment of this work was discovered among the Dead Sea scrolls in Qumran Cave I.

First Enoch (or Ethiopic Enoch) This is a compilation, partly in Hebrew and partly in Aramaic, of the works of several authors who were Pharisees. It is called "Ethiopic Enoch" because our only source is an Ethiopian version.

It has a variety of teachings, some contradictory, about the coming Messiah and his kingdom: It will be eternal on earth and in heaven and will begin after the last judgment (37-71); it will be eternal only on the earth, beginning after the last judgment (1-36); it will be temporary and on earth, and will be followed by the last judgment (91-104).

The evil one is Azazel who "hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, and which men were striving to learn" (9:6).

Second Enoch (Slovonic Enoch)Extant only in a Slavonic version, this manuscript has some similarity to First Enoch, but also to early Christian literature. Part of it is thought to have been written by Christians in a later century A.D.

Second Baruch A compilation of several works, this book declares that men are saved solely by their works and that the Messianic kingdom is soon to be established; then Israel will be a world empire with Jerusalem as its capital. Probably written during the first or second century A.D., it is extant only in a Syriac version.

Third Baruch This book, probably written in the second century A.D., advocates a belief in seven heavens and three classes of angels who intercede for three classes of men.

Fourth Ezra Probably written about the end of the first century A.D., this book teaches that Israel is great, the Jews are Gods only people, the law was a special gift to them after its rejection by other worlds, and that God loves the Jews more than any other people.

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs This book, which may have been written by a Jew during the Maccabean rule, teaches that through the Jews all the Gentiles will be saved. The promised Messiah will come through the tribe of Levi, not Judah. Part of this book was found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Qumran Cave I.

Sibylline Oracles This is a work comprised originally of 15 books and several fragments containing oracles developed by Jews and probably also Christian authors, from the 2nd century B.C. to about the 5th century A.D.

Assumption of Moses Probably written during the 1st century A.D. by a patriotic Jew, this work originally had two different books: the Testament of Moses and the Assumption. The author teaches that the ten tribes will return and rejoin Judah and Benjamin, and eventually Israel will be the greatest nation on earth.

Psalms of Solomon This is a collection of 18 psalms which declare that Israel is righteous and all other nations are wicked. It probably was written in Hebrew in the first century B.C.


It is believed that the Jews who lived in the Qumran Community, near the Dead Sea (1st century B.C.-1st century A.D.), were Essenes. In addition to preparing copies of Old Testament books, they also wrote several original documents; only a few of these are complete enough to be useful.

The Manual of Discipline This is the most important of the non-Biblical books found at Qumran. It contains the rules and regulations of the group which had a democratic organization, but no private ownership of property or even money. Strict rules include making false or foolish statements, interrupting another's speech, or sleeping during a meeting. Everyone was required to eat together. Initiation rituals, water purification rites, etc. are included. The rules are similar to the Essene rules which were described by Philo and Josephus.

The Habakkuk Commentary (1Qp Hab.)Habakkuk 1 and 2 are said to be prophecies which were fulfilled in the times in which the writer lived.

The War of the Sons of Light with the Sons of Darkness (1QM)Rules of warfare are outlined, which the faithful Jews are to obey in their soon-coming war against evil forces.

The Damascus Document Discovered in a Genizah (manuscript storeroom) of a Cairo synagogue near the close of the 19th century, this document parallels rules and teachings found in the Manual of Discipline and Habakkuk Commentary.

Consider how empty and dreary your life would be, if you did not have the precious Bible and Spirit of Prophecy! The Inspired Writings are your path to heaven. Stay on the path. Nothing else is safe. 





There has been a deluge of new translations in the 20th century. Some have been very strange.

For example, Jordan's Cotton Patch Version substitutes contemporary Southern U.S. people, places, and parties for the Biblical ones! Corinth becomes Atlanta in 1 Corinthians 1:2, Jews become whites," and Gentiles become "Negroes."

Several different Sacred Name versions have been published, frequently, in order to rival one another, with competing ancient names for God and Christ.

Such has been the flood of modern translations, that it is difficult to keep track of them. In the following list you will find 134 translations, from 1893 to 1973.

The translations are arranged by the date the entire Bible was published. Earlier parts of important translations are listed under that date. If only the New Testament has been translated, it is, of course, listed under its date. If no complete New Testament or Old Testament exists, then the date of the first portion is used. When known, the name of the translator is given. Additional data is given within parentheses, when it significant enough.

For additional information, consult the following:

Margaret T. Hills, ed., The English Bible in America: A Bibliography of Editions of the Bible and the New Testament Published in America, 1777-1957. New York: The American Bible Society and the New York Public Library, 1961.

A.S. Herbert, Historical Catalogue of Printed Editions of the English Bible, 1525-1967. London.

The British and Foreign Bible Society, London.

The American Bible Society, New York. 

1893 Revised Version (New Testament, 1881; Old Testament 1893; today called English Revised Version).

1900 Hayman's Epistles. The Epistles of the New Testament. An attempt to present them in current and popular idiom, by Henry Hayman.

1901 American Revised Version (English Revised Version, with a few changes by a team of U.S. scholars, today called the American Standard Version).

1901 Modern American Bible. The New Testament. The Modern American Bible. By Frank Schell Ballantine.

1901 Moffatt's Historical New Testament. The Historical New Testament, by James Moffatt (a different translation from Moffatt's later translation, and not as influential).

1901 Ways Epistles. The Letters of St. Paul to Seven Churches and Three Friends. Translated by Arthur S. Way.

1901 Young Peoples Bible. The Young Peoples Bible or the Scriptures Corrected, Explained, and Simplified. By Harriet Newell Jones.

1902 Rotherham: Emphasized Bible. The Emphasized Bible. By Joseph Bryant Rotherham. Old Testament (1902), New Testament (1897).

1902 Godbey's New Testament. By W.B. Godbey.

1902 Twentieth Century New Testament: The Holy Bible in Modern English. By Ferrar Fenton.

1903 Weymouth's New Testament: The New Testament in Modern Speech. By Richard Francis Weymouth.

1904 Worrell's New Testament. By A.S. Worrell.

1905 Lloyds New Testament: The Corrected English New Testament. By Samuel Lloyd.

1906 Forster.

1907 Bourne's Gospels. By A.E. Bourne.

1907 Moulton's Modern Readers Bible: The Modern Readers Bible. By Richard G. Moulton.

1908 Rutherford's Epistles. By W.G. Rutherford, London, 1908.

1909 The Bible in Modern English.

1909 Weaver New Testament. By S. Townsend Weaver.

1910 Cunard's. By F.W. Cunard.

1914 Numeric New Testament. Edited by Ivan Panin.

1914 Cunnington's New Testament. By E.E. Cunnington.

1916 McFadyen. By John Edgar McFadyen.

1917 Jewish Publication Society Bible. By Jewish Publication Society (Jewish).

1918 Anderson New Testament. By H.T. Anderson.

1919 The Messages of the Bible. Edited by Frank K. Sanders and Charles F. Kent.

1919 The Adelphi New Testament. By T. Fosher Unwin.

1921 Common Speech. By T.W. Pym.

1921 Shorter Bible. By Charles Foster Kent.

1922 Plainer Bible for Plain People. By Chaplain Frank Schell Ballentine (Amish).

1923 Riverside New Testament. By William C. Ballantine.

1923 Robertson. By A.T. Robertson.

1924 Labor Determinative Version.

1924 Montgomery's Centenary Translation By Helen Barrett Montgomery.

1925 Askwith's Psalms. By E.H. Askwith.

1925 People's New Covenant. By Arthur E. Overbury (Christian Science).

1925 Children's Bible. By Henry A. Gherman and Charles Foster Kent.

1926 The Western New Testament. By T. Fosher Unwin.

1926 Moffatt: A New Translation of the Bible. By James Moffatt.

1927 Kent's Students Old Testament. By Charles Foster Kent.

1927 Smith-Goodspeed: The Bible. An American Translation. Old Testament by J.M. Powis Smith; New Testament by Edgar J. Goodspeed.

1928 Christian's Bible. By George N. LeFevre.

1928 Czarnomska Version. By Elizabeth Czarnomska.

1928 Spiritualist's Matthew. Edited by J. W. Potter (spiritualist).

1928 The Psalms Complete. By William Wallace Martin.

1929 The Book of Job and Ecclesiastes.

1929 Gowen's Psalms. By Herbert H. Gowen.

1930 The Book of Mark. By Loux.

1932 Kleist's Memoirs of St. Peter: The Memoirs of St. Peter, or the Gospel according to St. Mark. By James A. Kleist.

1933 Torrey's Four Gospels. By Charles Cutler Torrey.

1934 Royd's Epistles and Gospels. By Thomas Fletcher.

1934 Old Testament in Colloquial English.

1934 Wade: The Documents of the New Testament. By G.W. Wade.

1935 Westminster Version. By Cuthbert Lattey (RC).

1937 Cornish's St. Paul from the Trenches. By Gerald Warre Cornish.

1937 Greber's New Testament. By Johannes Greber.

1937 Martin's New Testament. By William Wallace Martin.

1937 Spencer's New Testament. By Francis Aloysius Spencer (RC).

1937 Williams New Testament. By Charles B. Williams.

1938 Book of Books. By R. Mercer Wilson (New Testament).

1938 Buttenweiser's Psalms. By Moses Buttenweiser.

1938 Clementson's New Testament. By Edgar Lewis Clementson.

1939 Oesterley Psalms. By W.O.E. Oesterley.

1940 St. Mark in Current English. By Mary L. Matheson

1941 The Book of Genesis Complete. The Ephramaean Version.

1941 Twelve Minor Prophets.

1944 Callan's Psalms.

1944 Wand's New Testament Letters. By J.W.C. Wand.

1945, 1948 Knox. Monsignor Knox (RC).

1945 Stringfellow's New Testament. By Ervin Edward Stringfellow.

1946 Lenski By R.C.H. Lenski.

1947 Eerdman's Psalms.

1947 Swann's New Testament. By George Swann.

1948 Letchworth New Testament.

1949 Basic Bible: Basic English (Basic English is a system of simplified English with a primary vocabulary of 850 words, devised by C.K. Ogden as an international auxiliary language and as an aid in learning English. In 1940 a committee, under the direction of S.H. Hooke of the University of London, produced an independent translation of the New Testament, using the 850 words in the primary vocabulary of basic English, to which 50 special Bible words and 100 others were added.)

1949 Leslie's Psalms. By Elmer A. Leslie.

1950 The New Testament of our Messiah and Saviour, Yahshua. Sacred Name Version.

1951 Authentic Version.

1951 Vernon's Mark. By Edward Vernon.

1952 New Testament in Plain English. By Charles Kingsley Williams. ("Plain English" is a simplified form of the English language, based on a list of 1,500 fundamental and common words that make up ordinary English speech, plus some 160 or 170 others that are explained in a glossary at the end of the volume.)

1952 Penguin Bible. By E.V. Rieu.

1952 Revised Standard Version (New Testament, 1946. Old Testament with Complete Bible, 1952. Apocrypha, 1957).

1954 Kissane's Psalms. By Monsignor Edward J. Kissane (RC).

1954 Kleist and Lilly's New Testament. By James A. Kleist, S.J. (Gospels), and Joseph L. Lilly, C.M. (Acts to Revelation) (RC).

1954 Kleist and Lynam's Psalms. By James A. Kleist, S.J. and Thomas James Lynam (RC).

1955 Fide's Translation (Psalms) (RC).

1955 Schonfield's Authentic New Testament. By Hugh J. Schonfield (Jewish).

1956 Laubach's Inspired Letters. By Frank C. Laubach (Romans-Jude), written in short, clear sentences with a limited vocabulary of about 2,000 words.

1957 Concordant Version.

1957 Lamsa's. By George M. Lamsa. Philadelphia: A.J. Holman Co.

1958 Hudson: The Pauline Epistles. By James T. Hudson.

1958 Meissner's Gospels. By Lawrence Meissner.

1958 Phillips New Testament: New Testament in Modern English. By J.B. Phillips (Introduction by C.S. Lewis, 1951. A corrected edition, 1957. First published in England, 1947. The Gospels, translated into modern English by J.B. Phillips, c. 1951. First published in 1952. The Young Church in Action; a Translation of the Acts of Apostles by J.B. Phillips, 1955. Book of Revelation, 1957. Gospels, a corrected edition, 1958. Four Prophets: Amos, Hosea, First Isaiah, Micah; a modern translation from the Hebrew, by J.B. Phillips, 1963. Second revised edition of the New Testament, 1973)

1958 Tomanek's New Testament. By James L. Tomanek.

1959 Cressman: St. Mark. By Annie Cressman.

1959 Modern Language Bible (Berkeley)Gerrit Verkuyl, editor-in-chief and translator of the New Testament section (Berkeley Version of the New Testament, 1945).

1960 The Children's "King James" Bible. By Jay Green (wording) and "Peter" Palmer (stories); translated from the Textus Receptus.

1961 New World Translation (Jehovah's Witnesses).

1961 Noli's Greek Orthodox New Testament. By Fan S. Noli.

1961 One Way: The Jesus People New Testament. By Olaf M. Norlie.

1961 Simplified New Testament and Psalms. By Olaf M. Norlie (New Testament) and R.K. Harrison (Psalms, for teenagers).

1961 Wuest's Expanded New Testament. By Kenneth S. Wuest.

1962 Children's Version. The text is a simplification and modernization of the KJV.

1962 New Jewish Version: The Torah: The Five Books of Moses (Jewish).

1963 Beck's New Testament: The New Testament in the Language of Today. By William F. Beck.

1963 Gelineau's Psalms. By Joseph Gelineau (Jewish).

1963 The Holy Name Bible. By A.B. Trama. This translation is understood to have been made by A.B. Trama and reprinted at his expense. The version attempts to restore Semitic proper names to their Aramaic or Hebrew form and to clear up difficulties in the text in the light of possible Semitic background.

1964 Anchor Bible. Edited by William F. Albright and David N. Freedman (individual translators for books).

1964 Hadas' Psalms: The Book of Psalms for the Modern Reader. By Gershon Hadas.

1965 Amplified Bible. By Frances E. Siewert.

1965 Bruce's Expanded Paraphrase. By F.F. Bruce.

1966 Burke: God Is For Real, Man. By Carl F. Burke. New York: Association Press (some Bible passages in heavy slang).

1966 Jerusalem Bible (RC).

1966 Living Scriptures. By Jay Green (based on Textus Receptus).

1966 Today's English Version: Good News for Modern Man (ABS edition).

1967 Dales New World. By Alan T. Dale (New Testament).

1967 Liverpool Vernacular Gospels: The Gospels in Scouse. By Dick Williams and Frank Shaw ("a rollicking, carefree interpretation of some Gospel passages").

1968 Cotton Patch Version (Southern U.S. dialect version). By Jordan.

1968 Hanson's Psalms in Modern Speech. By Richard S. Hanson.

1968 Restoration of Original Name New Testament (Sacred Name version, using Yahvahshua as the name for Jesus Christ, based on Rotherham's Version).

1969 Barclay's New Testament. By William Barclay.

1969 Children's New Testament. By Gleason H. Ledyard.

1970 The Mercier New Testament. By Kevin Condon (RC, translated from critical Greek Texts).

1970 New American Bible (Genesis, 1948; Vol. I, Genesis-Ruth, 1952; Vol. III, Sapiential or Wisdom Books, 1955; Vol. IV, Prophetic Books, 1961; Vol. II, Samuel-Maccabees, 1969, RC).

1970 New English Bible with the Apocrypha. (New Testament, 1961; 2nd ed., 1970. The Old Testament and Apocrypha, 1970).

1971 Blackwelder's Exegetical Translation: Letters from Paul. By Boyce W. Blackwelder.

1971 Living Bible, Paraphrased. By Kenneth Taylor (Living History of Israel, a paraphrase of Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, 1970. Living Prophecies: the Minor Prophets paraphrased with Daniel and the Revelation, 1965, 1967. Living New Testament Paraphrased, 1967. Living Letters: the paraphrased Epistles, 1967, c. 1962).

1971 New American Standard Bible.

1972 The Bible in Living English. By Steven T. Byington.

1973 The Translators New Testament. British and Foreign Bible Society. (35 Bible scholars and 18 missionary linguists prepared this translation in order "to make available, to those translators of the New Testament into their own mother tongue who depend on English for access to the sources of Biblical scholarship, such help as is necessary for the making of effective translations in the languages of today." Includes Notes and a Glossary. Based on the United Bible Societies Greek Text, 1966.)

1973 The Better Version of the New Testament. By Chester Estes.

1973 Common Bible (Joint Protestant-RC Bible, with Apocrypha).

1973 New International Version  

"In the Bible the will of God is revealed. The truths of the Word of God are the utterances of the Most High. He who makes these truths a part of his life becomes in every sense a new creature. He is not given new mental powers, but the darkness that through ignorance and sin has clouded the understanding is removed. The words, A new heart also will I give you, mean, A new mind will I give you. A change of heart is always attended by a clear conviction of Christian duty, an understanding of truth. He who gives the Scriptures close, prayerful attention will gain clear comprehension and sound judgment, as if in turning to God he had reached a higher plane of intelligence.

"The Bible contains the principles that lie at the foundation of all true greatness, all true prosperity, whether for the individual or for the nation. The nation that gives free room for the circulation of the Scriptures opens the way for the minds of the people to develop and expand. The reading of the Scriptures causes light to shine into the darkness. As the Word of God is searched, life-giving truths are found. In the lives of those who heed its teachings there will be an undercurrent of happiness that will bless all with whom they are brought in contact."

EGW, Review and Herald, December 18, 1913