Page from Wycliffe's Bible

Glossary of Proper Names

Andrews, Lancelot (1555-1626) Chairman of the Old Testament committee at Westminster who was conversant in fifteen languages. It was said that whenever the godly Lancelot was near, King James "desisted from mirth and frivolity in his presence."

Astruc, Jean (1684-1766) Roman Catholic physician and textual critic who developed the theory that the Pentateuch was authored by at least two different men, neither of whom was Moses.

Bede, the Venerable (673-735) British scholar known as "The Father of English Church History," who crowned his literary career with a deathbed translation of the Gospel of John into Middle English.

Beza, Theodore (1519-1605) Swiss Reformer, Greek scholar, and successor to John Calvin. He produced ten editions of his pro-Textus Receptus Greek New Testament. He was also a major contributor to the translation committee for the Geneva Bible in 1560.

Bois, John (1560-1643) One of the final editors for the King James translation who may have been the most accomplished scholar of them all. As a child, he was reading Hebrew at age five and writing the same at six. As a student, he corresponded with his teachers in Greek. As a professor, he taught and studied sixteen hours a day. During his career, he mastered sixty Greek grammars.

Burgon, Dean John William (1813-1888) Outstanding conservative scholar of 19th-century Anglicanism, whose literary works in defense of the A.D. 1611 Authorized Version have never been refuted. They include: The Revision Revised, The Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels Vindicated and Established, The Causes of the Corruption of the Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels, and The Last Twelve Verses of Mark. Burgons and Scriveners writings provide a wealth of data in favor of the Greek manuscripts underlying the King James and opposing the Greek Text the modern ones are based on. Also see Scrivener and Miller.

Caniplon, Priest Edmund (1540-1581) Former Protestant who turned Jesuit agent; he was arrested in England for conspiracy and executed in 1581.

Chrysostom, John (347-407) Bishop of Constantinople recognized as the first historical personality to refer to Scripture as "the Bible." Name means "golden-mouthed."

Clement of Alexandria (150-215) Successor to Pantaenus as headmaster of Alexandrias catechetical school of theology and philosophy. Among his many doctrinal heresies, Clement believed that Platos writings were inspired and that the stars should be worshiped. Origen succeeded him in 202.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1772-1834) Pro-Vatican poet-philosopher who composed numbers of his works under the "inspiration" of a lingering opium habit. F.J.A. Hort deeply valued Coleridge's writings.

Constantine the Great (d. 337) First of the so-called "Christian" emperors, he commissioned Eusebius of Caesarea to transcribe fifty new Bibles in the aftermath of the Diocletian-Galerius persecution. Most scholars believe codices Vaticanus and Sinaiticus are two of the fifty copies.

Coverdale, Miles (1488-1568) Cambridge scholar who produced the first complete English Bible printed in 1535, called The Coverdale Bible. four years later, he completed the Great Bible (1539). This good man was also a part of the translation committee that issued the Geneva Bible in 1560.

Diocletian, Emperor Valerius (245-313) Roman emperor who initiated the tenth and worst of the Imperial persecutions against organized Christianity (303-313). After only two years of bloodletting, Diocletian went insane and abdicated his throne. Moving to Dalmatia, he planted cabbages. The widespread incineration of Holy Scripture carried on by Diocletian's successor-nephew, Galerius, prompted Constantine to later procure fifty new Bibles for his realm.

Edward VI, King (1537-1553) Pious son of England's Henry VIII (by the Protestant Jane Seymour), whose brief reign of six years was characterized by an unprecedented proliferation of Bibles throughout the land.

Ellicott, Bishop Charles John (1819-1905) Chairman of the British New Testament Revision Committee (1871-1881), he sided with Westcott and Hort in their undermining of the King James Bible.

Elzevir, Bonaventure (c.1546-1617) Dutch printer, whose Leiden publishing house produced seven editions of the Greek New Testament between 1624-1787. His 1633 second edition introduced the term, Textus Receptus, in the preface with the words, "Textum Ab Omnibus receiptum" meaning "You have therefore the text now received by all."

Erasmus, Desiderius (1469-1536) Dutch intellectual known as the "journalist of scholarship" credited with producing the worlds first printed Greek New Testament. His decided preference for the readings of the Textus Receptus over those of Codex Vaticanus (as supplied to him by the Catholic Seplveda) produced an outstanding Greek Text. Unfortunately, he later later rejected the Reformers and remained with Catholicism.

Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340) Catholic churchman and close friend of Emperor Constantine, who told him to procure fifty new Bibles in the wake of Diocletian's decade-long persecution. Many believe codices Vaticanus and Sinaiticus are two of these fifty copies.

Fawkes, Guy (1570-1606) Catholic soldier of fortune caught superintending thirty-six barrels of gunpowder in the basement of Parliament only hours before the convening of that assembly. Executed in 1606, the would-be assassin of James I continues to be burned in effigy each Guy Fawkes Day in Britain.

Garnet, Priest Henry (1555-1606) Superior general of the Jesuit House in England who was hanged, drawn, and quartered for his role in the foiled Gunpowder Plot of 1605.

Hort, Fenton John Anthony (1828-1892) Pro-Catholic, pro-atheist, and demon-guided Cambridge professor who joined Brooke Westcott in producing a Greek New Testament built upon the Codex Vaticanus. During the ensuing Revision Committee of 1871-1881, Dr. Hort took the lead in cramming this corrupt text down the throats of his fellow committee members. The end result was the Revised Version New Testament of 1881.

Ignatius de Loyola (1491-1556) Fanatical founder of The Society of Jesus (more commonly known as the Jesuits) in 1534. The avowed purpose of his mission was to recapture Europe for the pope.

Irenaeus (130-200) Bishop of Lyons and one of several Ante-Nicene "fathers" whose extant writings contain quotations from Mark 16:9-20. He cites Mark 16:19 in his polemical treatise entitled Irenaeus Against Heresies, penned in approximately A.D. 177. (over a century and a half before Vaticanus and Sinaiticus).

James I, King (1566-1625) Formerly James VI of Scotland (through the Catholic, Mary, Queen of Scots), his English reign was distinguished by the authorized translation of the Bible which bears his name.

Jerome (342-42O) Catholic scholar who produced the Latin Vulgate, by "revising" the Itala version (Old Latin) according to the readings of Codex Vaticanus.

Keble, John (1792-1866) Professor of Poetry at Oxford and co-laborer with E.B. Pusey in the pro-Vatican Oxford Movement. This pro-Catholic exercised a strong influence on Dr. Westcott.

Lucian of Antioch (250-312) The purported catalyst behind Dr. Hort's unfounded conjecture regarding an empire-wide sanction of the Textus Receptus readings at two church councils between A.D. 250-350 at Antioch. Hort contended that all the Majority Text readings were merely many copies later made of Lucians copy. But there was no evidence of this.

Luther, Martin (1483-1546) Father of the European Reformation who employed Erasmus second edition Greek text for his epochal German translation of the Bible (1522-1534). He also provided the protection and encouragement for the exiled William Tyndale to print and smuggle into England his first 3,000 English New Testaments in 1525.

Mabillon, Priest Jean (1632-1707) Benedictine priest whose work, Latin Paleography in Official Documents, helped lay the earliest foundations of modern textual criticism.

Marcion, the Heretic (d. 160) Ancient enemy of the church known for his repeated verbal attacks on the New Testament Scriptures.

Mary, Queen (1516-1558) Also known as Bloody Mary. Fanatical Catholic daughter of Henry VIII (by Catherine of Aragon), whose five-year reign of terror caused the deaths of over three hundred English Christians, including John Rogers, John Hooper, Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley, and Thomas Cranmer.

Matthew, Thomas see Rogers, John.

Miller, Edward (19th century) Faithful friend and editorial assistant to Dean John William Burgon. His own literary works include A Guide to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament. Also see Burgon.

Nestle, Eberhard (1851-1913) German scholar whose initial Greek New Testament of 1898 has undergone twenty-six editions to date. Used in the majority of modern Bible colleges and seminaries, the Nestles text is basically identical to the text of Westcott and Hort.

Newman, Cardinal John Henry (1801-1890) Early leader within the Oxford Movement whose Tract 90 (written in 1841) evoked a major controversy for attempting to interpret the Church of England's 39 Articles as consistent with Catholicism. This apostate Anglican revealed his true pro-Vatican sympathies by converting to Rome in 1845. Seven years later, Dr. Westcott wrote: "and him I all but worship." Newman was rewarded with a Cardinals hat in 1879.

Origen, Adamantius (185-254) Onetime headmaster of Alexandria's catechetical school of theology and philosophy. Hailed as the church's first textual critic, this apostate denied many Christian beliefs and believed the stars were living creatures in possession of souls for which Christ died. After his Alexandrian excommunication for castrating himself, Origen took his mutilated manuscripts and migrated to Caesarea, where he set up another school. At the time of his death in A.D. 254, he bequeathed his library to his favorite pupil, Pamphilus. Upon his own death in 309, Pamphilus passed the corrupted readings of Origen on to Eusebius, a close friend of Constantine.

Pamphilus (240-309) Little-known personality representing the central link between the corrupting hand of Origen and modern English Bibles. Before his death in 254, Origen passed his contaminated manuscripts and leadership of his catechetical school on to his favored pupil, Pamphilus. Upon his own death in 309, Pamphilus did the same with the church historian, Eusebius. With his charge from Constantine to produce fifty new Bibles, Eusebius would have naturally directed his scribes to employ the readings of Origen as their exemplar. See Origen.

Pantaenus (d. 190) The first supposedly Christian headmaster of Alexandria's catechetical school of theology and philosophy, referred to by Clement as "the deepest Gnostic."

Philo (20 B.C.-A.D. 50 ) Apostate Jewish intellectual who founded Alexandria's infamous catechetical school of science, theology, and philosophy. He is also credited with pioneering the allegorical mode of hermeneutics.

Plato (c. 428-348) Pagan Greek philosopher who was revered by Clement of Alexandria, Origin, Westcott, and Hort.

Pusey, Edward Bouverie (1800-1882) Apostate leader of the pro-Vatican Oxford Movement; he exerted considerable influence over Westcott.

Rainolds, John (1549-1607) Leader of the four-man Puritan delegation, at Hampton Court, who specifically asked King James for a new English Bible. On the translation committee, he died before the project was completed.

Rogers, John (1500-1555) Tyndale's faithful assistant who incorporated his masters "dungeon works" of Joshua through 2 Chronicles (translated while in prison) into his own translation under the pseudonym of Thomas Matthew. Rogers was the first of Bloody Mary's victims, being burned at the stake in the presence of his wife and eleven children.

Schaff, Philip (1819-1893) Ecumenical church historian and professor at the apostate Union Theological Seminary, selected by the English Revision Committee to chair their American advisory board.

Scofield, Cyrus Ingerson (1843-1921) Civil War veteran and accomplished attorney led to Christ by Y.M.C.A. soul winner, Thomas McPheeters. With the financial backing of John T. Pirie, Scofield published his famous reference Bible in 1909, which is heavily slanted toward wrong doctrines. The New Scofield Reference Bible, released in 1967 while claiming to be based on the Majority Text, was translated from the Nestle-Aland Text.

Scrivener, Prebendary Frederick H.A. (1813-1891) Conservative Anglican scholar who continually opposed Hort throughout the decade of work done by the Revision Committee of 1871-1881, in preparation for the English Revised Version. Scrivener, an earnest Greek scholar, believed only the Textus Receptus readings should be used. His literary works include A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament for the Use of the Biblical Student and The Authorized Edition of the Bible (1611): Its Subsequent Reprints and Modern Representatives. Also see "Burgon."

Semler, Johann Salomo (1725-1791) One of the earliest of the German theologians to apply the liberal critico-historical method of "scientific" Bible study to Scripture.

Seplveda (16th century) Catholic scholar cited by Tregelles for his correspondence with Erasmus over the purported merits of Codex Vaticanus. Erasmus rejected the counsel and only used the Majority Text, in the preparation of His Greek Text.

Simon, Priest Richard (1638-1712) Catholic priest credited with being the founder of Old Testament criticism. Simon rejected the traditional Mosaic authorship of Genesis through Deuteronomy.

Smith, Miles (1554-1624) King James translator who was selected to be on the final review board. He was appointed to write the new Bibles preface, entitled The Translators to the Reader.

Smith, Vance (19th century) Pastor of St. Saviour's Gate Unitarian Church. His participation in the Revision Committee of 1871-1881 evoked bitter controversy, especially with regard to the role he played in removing the word, God, from 1 Timothy 3:16. This apostate worked closely with Westcott and Hort, in controlling the translation of the English Revised Version.

Stanley, Dean Arthur Penrhyn (1815-1881) Ecumenical Dean of Westminster who created a stir by inviting the Unitarian Vance Smith to the Revision Committee Communion service of 1871. He also made an unsuccessful bid to convert the Abbey into a national shrine for all faiths. As early as 1848, Westcott wrote admiringly of him.

Stephenus, Robert (1503-1559) Also known as Robert Estienne or Robert Stephen. French scholar and printer who, after the death of Erasmus, published four editions of the Greek New Testament in 1546, 1549, 1550, and 1551.

Tertullian (160-225) Ante-Nicene "father" whose treatise On Persecution Against Heretics (A.D. 208) makes reference to the Apostles autographs (original writings) as being extant in his day.

Tischendorf, Count Constantin (1815-1874) German textual critic who discovered the Codex Sinaiticus at St. Catherine's Monastery in 1844.

Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux (1813-1875) English scholar who spent forty-two hours examining the Codex Vaticanus. His own Greek New Testament, published in 1870, was decidedly anti-Receptus.

Tyndale, William (1494-1536) British scholar who had a fabulous grasp of foreign languages and gave his beloved countrymen their first printed English New Testament in 1525. Betrayed by a Catholic agent, named Henry Phillips, Tyndale was thrown into a dungeon and was strangled and burned at Vilvorde, Belgium. His last words were the prayer, "Open the King of England's eyes." With 90 percent of the Tyndale New Testament preserved in our Authorized Version, the pioneer translator has been duly honored as the "Father of the English Bible." As this book will reveal, Tyndale was the most important English translator in all history!

Westcott, Brooke Foss (1825-1901) Liberal Anglican scholar who conspired with Fenton Hort from 1853-1871, to produce a radical Greek New Testament that is primarily based on the Codex Vaticanus. Their corrupt Greek Text was used by the English Revision Committee of 1871-1881; this produced the English Revised Version New Testament of 1881.

Wiseman, Cardinal Nicholas Patrick Stephen (1802-1865) Rector of the Vatican's English College at Rome from 1828-1840. He returned to England, to become Archbishop of Westminster and a cardinal in 1850. Among the hundreds of English Protestants who were secretly weaned back to Catholicism by this persuasive papist were Prime Minister William Gladstone, Archbishop Richard Chevenix Trench, and John Henry Newman.

Wycliffe, John (1330-1384) English Patriot and Reformer, known as "The Morning Star of the Reformation" for producing the first entire Bible in English (although translated from the Latin Vulgate, since he had no other sources to work from). The one-hour rental fee for a hand-copied Wycliffe Bible was an entire load of hay. Despised by the Pope, Wycliffe's body was eventually unearthed and burned.

"For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope." Romans 15:4

"Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path." Psalm 119:105

"And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, He expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself." Luke 24:27

"Sanctify them through Thy truth; Thy Word is truth." John 17:17